From emerging democracies in transition, illiberal governments have rapidly transformed Hungary and Poland into ill democracies, have attempted to do so in Croatia, and are slowly and carefully entertaining an illiberal platform in Serbia, according to the new case study Resisting Ill Democracies in Europe. The findings, published in English, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, and Russian by a group of human rights organisations, are based on their study of ill democracy in Croatia, Hungary, Poland, and Serbia.
The authors identify the “ill democracy playbook” from a human rights perspective, to give an understanding of the policies and practices that make democracies sick. Ill democracies show some or all of the following symptoms:
- Using a majority in parliament to introduce constitutional changes and legislation, and governing based on a “tyranny of the majority.”
- Targeting the independence of the judiciary and institutions of independent oversight through functional and structural changes.
- Capturing of institutions through massive dismissals and the placement of “loyals” in key strategic positions to ensure their submission to the ruling government.
- Use of financial tools against democratic institutions and independent organisations, such as through budget cuts, cutting off from financial sources, and taxation.
- Shrinking of the democratic space, in particular through laws and policies curtailing freedom of expression, association, and assembly, and aimed at quelling opportunities for dissent.
- Publicly discrediting and slandering dissenting voices and using libel laws against them.
- Appropriating and manipulating historical narratives shaping the public discourse.
- Promoting “traditional values” and “national interests” in the name of majorities, and to the detriment of women, minorities, and vulnerable groups, with a discourse that plays on fear.